Solid waste issue: Sources, composition, disposal, recycling, and valorization

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2018.07.003Get rights and content

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Abstract

Disposal of solid wastes is a stinging and widespread problem in both urban and rural areas in many developed and developing countries. Municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and disposal is one of the major problems of urban environment in most countries worldwide today. MSW management solutions must be financially sustainable, technically feasible, socially, legally acceptable and environmentally friendly. Solid waste management issue is the biggest challenge to the authorities of both small and large cities’.

Valorization of food organic waste is one of the important current research areas. The conventional landfill, incineration, composting, and ways of handeling solid wastes are common as mature technologies for waste disposal. Traditionally, the most commonly used technologies for the treatment and valorization of the organic fraction of MSW are composting and anaerobic digestion (AD). The generation of organic solid waste (OSW); worldwide; is dramatically increasing each year. Most of the OSW’s are composed of agricultural waste, household food waste, human and animal wastes, etc. They are normally handled as animal feed, incinerated or disposed to landfill sites. OAW’s are comprised of materials rich in proteins, minerals, and sugars that could be used in other processes as substrates or raw materials.

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Abbreviations

MSW

municipal solid waste

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

SWG

solid waste generation

HHW

household hazardous wastes

HW

household waste

BOD

biochemical oxygen demand

MC

moisture content

GHGs

greenhouse gases

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BTEX

benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes

FTIR

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

OFMSW

organic fraction of municipal solid waste

AD

anaerobic digestion

MOW

municipal organic waste

SSF

solid state fermentation

PHB

poly-3-hydroxybutyrate

Bt

Bacillus thuringiensis

OM

organic matter

WWTPs

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wastewater treatment plants

EWM

enhanced waste management

ELFM

Enhanced Landfill Mining

WtE

waste-to-energy

WtP

waste-to-product

RDF

refuse derived fuel

ISWM

Integrated sustainable waste management

SmF

submerged fermentation

IAA

integrated agriculture‐aquaculture

Keywords

Valorization of plastic and municipal solid wastes

Waste-to-energy

Organic solid state fermentation technology

Anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes

Enhanced Landfill Mining

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