Nanoparticles: Properties, applications and toxicities

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.05.011Get rights and content

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Abstract

This review is provided a detailed overview of the synthesis, properties and applications of nanoparticles (NPs) exist in different forms. NPs are tiny materials having size ranges from 1 to 100 nm. They can be classified into different classes based on their properties, shapes or sizes. The different groups include fullerenes, metal NPs, ceramic NPs, and polymeric NPs. NPs possess unique physical and chemical properties due to their high surface area and nanoscale size. Their optical properties are reported to be dependent on the size, which imparts different colors due to absorption in the visible region. Their reactivity, toughness and other properties are also dependent on their unique size, shape and structure. Due to these characteristics, they are suitable candidates for various commercial and domestic applications, which include catalysis, imaging, medical applications, energy-based research, and environmental applications. Heavy metal NPs of lead, mercury and tin are reported to be so rigid and stable that their degradation is not easily achievable, which can lead to many environmental toxicities.

Graphical abstract

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Keywords

Nanoparticles

Fullerenes

Optical

Plasmonic

Toxicity

Abbreviations

NPs

nanoparticles

FESEM

field emission scanning electron microscopy

TEM

transmittance electron microscopy

XPS

X-ray photon spectroscopy

XRD

X-ray diffraction

DRS

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

FT-IR

Fourier transform infrared

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SERS

surface enhanced raman spectroscopy

PL

photoluminescence

MA-SiO2

methacrylate-functionalized silica

TMD-NDs

transition-metal dichalcogenide nanodots

PNP

polymer nanoparticle

CNTs

carbon nanotubes

LSPR

localized surface plasmon resonance

CVD

chemical vapor deposition

PVD

physical vapor deposition

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MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

POM

polyoxometalates

LDL

low density lipoprotein

MOFs

metal organic frameworks

PEG

polyethylene glycol

BET

Brunauer–Emmett–Teller

MMT

Montmorillonite

PEO

polyethylene oxide (PEO)

PLA

polylactic acid

RET

resonant energy transfer

PEC

photoelectrochemical

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