Preparation of Dinitrogen Pentoxide

Description, Properties and Uses of Dinitrogen Pentoxide

Dinitrogen Pentoxide is a chemical compound, which contains only nitrogen and oxygen. As stated by the name, a single molecule of Dinitrogen will posses 2 (di) nitrogen atoms as well as 5 (pent) oxygen atoms. Dinitrogen Pentoxide chemical formula is known as N₂O₅.

Dinitrogen pentoxide is the anhydride form of nitric acid, which is able to exist as a colourless crystal. It is also said to melt at 30 – degree Celcius. A rather unstable oxide of nitrogen, dinitrogen pentoxide is being used as an oxidiser in various chemical reactions. However, recently it has been replaced by nitronium tetrafluoroborate.

The Chemical Structure Of Dinitrogen Pentoxide (N₂O₅)

Dinitrogen pentoxide

As  we stated earlier, Dinitrogen Pentoxide is made up of 2 Nitrogen atoms and 5 Oxygen atoms. Now let’s assume you want to draw the lewis dot structure of N₂O₅, then you must first grasp a few basic things as listed below:

  • Nitrogen possess 5 valence electrons
  • Oxygen on the other hand possess 6 valence electrons

So in N₂O₅, there would be:

  • 5 * 2, which equates to 10 valence electrons of Nitrogen
  • 6*5, which equates to 30 valence electrons of Oxygen

Now, this means we will be working with a total of 40 valence electrons. The next step is to carefully go through the listed facts:

  • The total atoms number found in N₂O₅ is 2+5 = 7
  • We also know that each of these atoms must possess 8 electrons in its valence shell. So there should be 7 * 8, which will then equates to 56 valence electrons in the compound.
  • Now we have 40 electrons in our possession. Deficit is 56 – 40, which will give us 16 electrons. Since the compound possess only 2 atoms – there will be a total of 16 / 2, which then will give us 8 bonds.
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The Properties of Dinitrogen Pentoxide

Now let us dive into listing some important dinitrogen pentoxide:

  • Dinitrogen Pentoxide is said to be a colourless crystalline solid. Although, it is impossible to keep it below room temperature, which is because it’s melting point is 30 – degree Celsius.
  • When dinitogen pentoxide is being melted at 30 – degree celsius, it begins to transform into a liquid that looks yellowish.
  • For safety reasons, you want to be careful with the way you handle N₂O₅, this is because if you heat it beyond the regular 30 – degree celsius, it can decomposed and when decomposing, an explosion might occur.

The Preparation of Dinitrogen Pentoxide (N₂O₅)

Dinitrogen pentoxide

In order for us to prepare dinitrogen pentoxide, we will need to dehydrate nitric acid alongside phosphorus pentoxide. below is how the reaction will look like:

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P4O₁₀ + 12HNO₃ → 4H₃PO₄ + 6N₂O₅

Moving forward, since N₂O₅ is produced from HNO₃, the salt that N₂O₅ produces will also be the salt of HNO₃. below is how the rection will look like:

– N₂O₅ + NaOH → NaNO₃ + H₂O

We get sodium nitrate which is a salt of HNO₃.

The ionic Form of N₂O₅ – The ionic form of Dinitrogen pentoxide is known as nitronium nitrate. This can be experimented on using the following:

-N₂O₅ + NaCl → NaNO₃ + NO₂Cl

The sodium atom possess +1 charge, while the NO₃ atom possess -1 charge. Which simply means the ionic form of N₂O₅ is NaNO₃.


The Uses of Dinitrogen Pentoxide

Dinitrogen Pentoxide can be used for the following below:

  • Dinitrogen Pentoxide is formerly used as a nitrating agent.
  • Dinitrogen Pentoxide is one of the important elements in the entire universe. We urge you to learn about it, because it can  affect our lives as human beings.
  • It can be used to make TNT.

Decomposition of Dinitrogen Pentoxide

Dinitrogen pentoxide

When you are being asked to find the rate of which dinitrogen pentoxide decomposes, the time of passage will be given, also the initial concentration of the compound and the final concentration of the compound after the given time has passed will be given.

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Below is how the balanced formula will look like:

2N₂O₅ → 4NO₂ + O₂

So let’s take another instance, let’s say the passage of time is a. The initial concentration was b and the final concentration is z, then the formula needed to determine the average rate of decomposition will be:

-½ (b−C)molL⁻¹/a

Although the actual formula will look like:

Rate of decomposition =  ½ { – Delta N₂O₅ / Delta T]

Now, you might be wondering, why ½? Well, this is because we have written 2NO₂.

But again why minus sign? the reason is because the concentration is getting depleted.

Now let’s assume we were asked to discover the rate of formation of NO₂, the formula would look like

-¼ {Delta NO₂ / Delta T }

Again, you might be asking, why ¼? it is because we have written 4 NO₂?.

Then why +¼ and not – ¼ ? well, this time it is because we are gaining NO₂.

That’s all we can take for today, feel free to contribute in the comment section.