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15 Important Notes on the Atomic Structure

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  1. The atom is made up of electrons, protons and neutrons.


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  1. When an electron of an atom in its ground state absorbs a quantum of energy from light or radiation, it would jump to a level of higher energy and the electrons are said to be excited. When the electron returns to its ground state, it emits the quantum energy it absorbed, producing a line in the line of emission spectrum.


  1. Rutherford’s atom consists of a positively charged core called the nucleus, where most of the mass of the atom is contained, and the electrons, which move around the nucleus.


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  1. The energy of an electron is characterized by four quantum numbers. These quantum numbers are:– The principal quantum number, n, the subsidiary quantum number, I, the magnetic quantum number, m, and the spin quantum number, s.


  1. The arrangement of electrons around the nucleus of an atom is determined by the four quantum numbers of each electron in the atom.


atomic structure

Atomic structure


  1. Bohr’s model of an atom posits that (i) an atom contains minute nucleus consisting of protons and neutrons which contribute to most of the mass of the atom and that (ii) the electrons revolve around the nucleus in circular orbits of definite quantum energy.


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  1. The atomic number is the basic property of an element. The atomic number, A of an element is the number of protons in one atom of that element.


  1. The mass number, Z, of an element is the sum of protons and neutrons in its atom.


  1. The Wave Mechanics Model of the atom does not restrict electrons to definite regions around the nucleus as the Bohr model does. Instead, it makes the electron elusive and indicates a region around the nucleus called an orbital where there is possibility of finding an electron with certain given amount of energy.


  1. Isotopes of an element have the same number of proton(s) but different number of neutron(s).


  1. The chemical ability of the rare gases is due to the duplet and octet electronic configurations in the outermost shells of their atoms. Other elements have a tendency to achieve these stable configurations through chemical combinations.


  1. When elements are arranged in ascending order of atomic number, elements with similar chemical properties occur at regular periods which is the basis for the arrangement of elements in the periodic table.


  1. Electronic or ionic compounds are composed of ions arranged in an orderly pattern to form crystal lattices. They are hard, brittle solids with a high melting point. In the molten or aqueous state, they conduct electricity. They are soluble in polar solvents like water.


  1. Simple covalent compounds are usually small molecules with a definite shape. They are often gases or volatile liquids. If they are solids, they have low melting points. Covalent compounds are non electrolytes and are usually soluble in non-polar solvents.


  1. Van der Waals forces and the hydrogen bond are weak intermolecular bonds. The Van der Waals forces are weak attractive forces exist even between discrete molecules. These forces were first described by J.D Van der Waals, and are known as Van der Waals forces. These forces are much weaker than ionic and covalent bonds and are very useful and important tin the liquefaction of gases and in the formation of molecular lattices as in iodine and naphthalene crystals.




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About the Author

Tony Onwujiariri
Tony is an Avid Tech enthusiast that loves Scientific Inventions and Tech Products. He blogs Passionately on Science and Technology related niches and spends most of his time on Research in Content Management and SEO. Tony loves Sugar and has been in love with Don Williams since he was a toddler on Diapers.

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